Vegetarian Diets for Pregnancy

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SaMPLE MENu For PrEGNaNt WoMEN
Breakfast
• 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal topped with 1/4 cup raisins and
1 cup fortied soymilk
• 2 slices whole-wheat toast with 2 tablespoons almond
butter
• 3/4 cup calcium-fortied fruit juice
Lunch
• sandwich with 1/2 cup baked tofu, 2 slices whole-grain
bread and lettuce
• 2 cups tossed salad with herbs and lemon juice
• 1 piece fruit
Dinner
• 1 cup red beans and 1/2 cup rice
• 1/2 cup cooked broccoli with nutritional yeast
• 1 cup spinach salad
• 1 cup fortied soymilk
Snacks
• 2 tablespoons nuts • 1 cup mixed fruit
• 4 whole-wheat crackers
*Be sure to include a reliable source of vitamin B12, such as many prenatal
vitamins or fortied nondairy milk or cereal.
Menu Ideas
• Plan meals around nutritious whole grains, beans,
fruits, and vegetables. Add sesame seeds, wheat germ, or
nutritional yeast for avor and nutrition.
• Cooked leafy green vegetables are a powerhouse of
nutrition. Add them to soups and casseroles.
• Snack on dried fruits and nuts to boost your intake of iron
and other important trace nutrients.
GuIDELINES For GooD HEaLtH
DurING PrEGNaNCy
Begin a healthful diet before you become pregnant.
Your body stores of nutrients support the early growth and
development of your baby.
Maintain a steady rate of weight gain. Aim for about 2
to 4 pounds total during the rst trimester and then about
1 pound per week during the second and third trimesters.
If you were at a normal weight before you became pregnant,
the recommended weight gain overall is 25 to 35 pounds.
However, if you were underweight before pregnancy, you
should gain 28 to 40 pounds, and if you were overweight,
you should gain 15 to 25 pounds. Women carrying twins
should gain 35 to 45 pounds.
11
See your health care provider regularly.
Do not consume alcohol or use tobacco products during
pregnancy.
If you choose to consume caeinated beverages, limit
caeine intake to <300 mg per day (the amount in about 3
cups of coee).
Exercise during pregnancy is oen benecial to both
mother and baby. Talk to your doctor about an appropriate
exercise plan for you.
Limit empty calories found in highly processed foods
and sweets. Make your calories count!
Breastfeeding
T
he guidelines for breastfeeding mothers are similar to those
for pregnant women. Milk production requires even more
calories than pregnancy, so you will need to boost your food
intake a little bit. During the rst six months of breastfeeding,
you need 500 calories more than you did before you became
pregnant. is drops to 400 additional calories during the
second six months of breastfeeding. Protein needs are the same
as during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (an
additional 25 grams per day over pre-pregnancy needs).
1
references
1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for
energy, carbohydrate, ber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids
(macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2005.
2. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and uoride. washington, DC: National Academy
Press; 1997.
3. Keller JL, Lanou A, Barnard ND. The consumer cost of calcium from food and
supplements. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(11):1669-1671.
4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization.
Fats and oils in human nutrition: report of a joint expert consultation. Rome: Food
and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 1994. FAO Food and Nutrition
Paper, No. 57.
5. Reddy S, Sanders TA, Obeid O. e inuence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential
fatty acid status of the newborn. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48(5):358-368.
6. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin,
riboavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
7. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A,
vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum,
nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;
2000.
8. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. 2nd ed. Rome: World Health
Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2004.
9. Messina VK, Mangels R, Messina M. e dietitian's guide to vegetarian diets: issues and
applications. 2nd ed. Sudburg, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2004.
10. Holick MF. e vitamin D epidemic and its health consequences. J Nutr. November
2005;135(11):2739S-2748S.
11. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition during pregnancy.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1990.
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