3 2 2
c. 9000 : The development of agriculture.
c. 3500 : A number of small cities, centres of the
world’s first civilisation, appeared
in Sumer, the lower part of the Tigris-
Euphrates Valley (present Iraq).
c. 3500 : The Sumerians invented the first form of
writing. It was later simplified to produce
wedge-shaped cuneiform writing, which
spread throughout the Middle East.
c. 2500 : The Pyramids and Great Sphinx were built
in Giza, Egypt.
c. 2500 : The Indus Valley civilisation began to
flourish in the cities of Mohenjo-Daro and
Harappa in what is now Pakistan.
c. 2500 : The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Epic of
Creation, the oldest epic poems in world
literature, were written in Mesopotamia.
c. 2500-1100: The Minoan civilisation on the island
of Crete rose and fell.
2300s : Sargon of Akkad conquered the Sumerians
and united all Mesopotamia under his rule,
creating the world’s first empire.
c. 1792-1750 : Babylonia flourished under King
c. 1700 : Code of Hammurabi, one of the first law
codes, was drawn up.
c.1500-1000:The Aryans of central Asia came to In-
c. 1400 : The making of iron began.
776 : The first recorded Olympic Games were
held in Greece.
c. 550 : Cyrus the Great established the Persian
509 : The people of Rome revolted against their
Etruscan rulers and established a repub-
500 : The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were
400 : Hippocrates, the father of Medicine
showed that diseases have natural
399 : Socrates was forced to commit suicide by
drinking hemlock, a poison.
44 : Julius Caesar of Rome was assassinated.
27 : Augustus became the first Roman em-
4 : Birth of Jesus Christ.
1 : The Chinese invented paper.
250 : The Mayans developed an advanced civi-
lization in Central America and Mexico.
313 : Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, which
granted freedom of worship to Christians of
the Roman Empire.
395 : The Roman Empire split into the East Ro-
man, or Byzantine Empire and the West
300 : The Ghana Empire, the first great black
empire in Western Africa, existed as a trad-
570 : Birth of Prophet Muhammad, the founder
610 : Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, began
622 : Muhammad, prophet of Islam, fled from
Mecca to Medina. His flight, called the
Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic
750 : The Abbasids became the Caliphs of
the Islamic world.
800 : Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, ruler
of the Franks, emperor of the Romans.
TIMELINE: WORLD HISTORY